Medical Science and Discovery <p><span style="font-family: Arial; font-size: small;"><strong>Medical Science and Discovery</strong> (ISSN: 2148-6832) is an international open access, peer-reviewed scientific research journal that provides rapid evaluation of articles in all disciplines of Health Sciences. </span></p> Lycia Press London UK en-US Medical Science and Discovery 2148-6832 <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Impact of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors on gastric histopathology in patients with depression <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Antidepressant medications such as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) and Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRI) are used in the psychopharmacological treatment for various types conditions. This study aimed to investigate whether SSRIs and SNRIs could reduce gastric intestinal metaplasia.</p> <p><strong>Material Methods:</strong> A total of 212 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy plus biopsy in our clinic and were using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other potent serotonin reuptake inhibitors were included in the study. A control group was created with a total of 230 age and gender matched patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy plus biopsy but had no SSRI or SNRI usage. Patients’ endoscopic and pathologic findings were recorded retrospectively and compared between the groups.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The patient group consisted of 180 (84.9%) male and 32 (15.1%) female patients, while the control group included 175 (76.1%) male and 55 (23.29%) female patients. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of gender (p=0.020). The rates of erythematous antral gastritis (p&lt;0.001), peptic ulcer (p=0.019), erosive gastropathy (p=0.001) and duodenitis (p=0.002) were statistically significantly lower in the patient group compared to the control group. The rates of H.Pylori(p=0.002), intestinal metaplasia (p=0.013), neutrophil activity (acute inflammation) (p&lt;0.001) and chronic inflammation (p&lt;0.001) were lower in the case group compared to the control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> SSRIs/SNRIs may potentially be used in treating gastrointestinal inflammation and metaplasia. However, further prospective randomised studies with larger series are needed to support our findings.</p> Taner Akyol Ali Muhtaroğlu Demet Şeker Ahmet Cumhur Dülger Copyright (c) 2023 Taner Akyol, Ali Muhtaroğlu, Demet Şeker, Ahmet Cumhur Dülger 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10 1 8 13 10.36472/msd.v10i1.856 Relationship between vitamin D levels and hematological parameters <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aims to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and hematological parameters, and body mass index.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> It was carried out in the internal medicine outpatient clinic of Ayancık State Hospital between April 2017 and November 2020. Information about the sociodemographic and laboratory values of the patients was obtained from the hospital information system. The patients were divided into two groups as those with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml and those with over 30 ng/ml. Vitamin D levels and hematological parameters of all patients were examined.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the 343 patients included in the study, 277 were women. When vitamin D levels were evaluated, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in women (82.7%; n:244) according to gender (p=0.023). When vitamin D levels are assessed according to age, It was observed that the vitamin D level of the patients included in the study, especially in the advanced age group, was low. There was no significant difference between vitamin D levels and body mass index (p=0.138). Age, MCV, MPV, HDL, Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin D levels were found to be significantly higher in female patients with adequate vitamin D levels (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In our study, it was observed that there was a significant relationship between vitamin D levels, age, gender, platelet level, monocyte, MCV, neutrophil, protein, HDL, calcium, and vitamin B12 levels. Beside the treatment and clinical examinations, it is necessary to monitor and evaluate the vitamin D levels of the patients, as well as hematological, biochemical and endocrinological parameter changes.</p> Zeynep Ergenc Hasan Ergenc İlhan Yıldırım Ahmet Öztürk Mustafa Usanmaz Cengiz Karacaer Serkan Günay Gülsüm Kaya Copyright (c) 2023 Zeynep Ergenc, Hasan Ergenc, İlhan Yıldırım, Ahmet Öztürk, Mustafa Usanmaz, Cengiz Karacaer, Serkan Günay, Gülsüm Kaya 2023-01-21 2023-01-21 10 1 1 7 10.36472/msd.v10i1.855 Prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index in severe COVID-19 infection <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Nutritional status plays an important role in defense against infection. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), which consists of inflammation and nutritional markers, on prognosis and survival in patients with severe COVID-19 infection.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> Data were retrospectively collected by screening the files of 146 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in 2020 and 2021. The PNI values of the patients were calculated using the obtained data. The cut-off value of PNI was determined with the receiver operating characteristic analysis. Multivariate and univariate analyses were undertaken to evaluate the prognostic value of PNI and its relationship with clinical features and overall survival (OS) in patients with severe COVID-19 infection.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study included a total of 146 patients, of whom 83 (60%) were male, and 55 (39.9%) were female. The mean age was 62 years. The cut-off value of PNI was 45. PNI was found to be associated with prognosis in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Survival and prognosis were statistically significantly better in the group with a PNI higher than the cut-off value (P&lt;0.005).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> PNI was determined to have independent prognostic value and predict OS in severe COVID-19 infection. The results showed that COVID-19 infection was more severe and had a worse prognosis in the patients with a low PNI (&lt;45). Based on the measurement of simple, inexpensive, and easily available biomarkers, PNI can be beneficial in clinical practice.</p> Elif Tugba Tuncel Copyright (c) 2023 Elif Tugba Tuncel 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10 1 14 17 10.36472/msd.v10i1.859 Assessment of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in type 2 diabetic postmenopausal women <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Also, endothelial dysfunction arises with vascular ageing during the postmenopausal period. Our objective in this study was to evaluate inflammation and endothelial function parameters and their possible diagnostic roles in type 2 diabetic postmenopausal patients.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> The study was conducted on four groups, including type 2 diabetic premenopausal (n:20), non-diabetic premenopausal (n:20), type 2 diabetic postmenopausal (n:20), and non-diabetic postmenopausal subjects (n:20). Serum endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) levels were determined as inflammatory and endothelial function markers using ELISA kits.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Serum ET-1, IL-6, and YKL-40 levels were higher in the type 2 diabetic postmenopausal group compared to the non-diabetic premenopausal group (p&lt;0.01, p&lt;0.05, and p&lt;0.01, respectively). ET-1, IL-6, and YKL-40 levels were higher in the type 2 diabetic postmenopausal group compared to the non-diabetic postmenopausal group (p&lt;0.001, p&lt;0.05, and p&lt;0.01 respectively). ROC analysis revealed serum ET-1 (AUC 0.933, sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 85.7%), IL-6 (AUC 0.812, sensitivity 56.3%, specificity 92.8%), and YKL-40 (AUC 0.880, sensitivity 81.2%, specificity 92.8%), as good diagnostic parameters, especially in the type 2 diabetic premenopausal vs. non-diabetic premenopausal cohorts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Serum ET-1, IL-6, and YKL-40 levels were at the highest levels in the 2 diabetic postmenopausal group, and the increase in these markers was remarkable in diabetes compared with menopausal periods. Also, ET-1, IL-6, and YKL-40 were good diagnostic parameters for detecting endothelial function and inflammation in type 2 diabetic postmenopausal and non-diabetic premenopausal cohorts.</p> Yavuz Abbak Hilal Çam Abbak Nurten Bahtiyar Selmin Toplan Copyright (c) 2023 Yavuz Abbak, Hilal Çam Abbak, Nurten Bahtiyar, Selmin Toplan 2023-01-24 2023-01-24 10 1 18 24 10.36472/msd.v10i1.858 Assessing period poverty in Trinidad and Tobago: An exploratory approach <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of this study was to assess period poverty in Trinidad and Tobago</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> A nationally-drawn sample of 504 women between the ages of 18-48 was used from various urban areas of the country. A cross-sectional research design using a 14-item questionnaire with a mix of closed and open-ended questions was utilised to obtain data about women’s experiences concerning the affordability of period products and how they cope with their periods</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings show that 76% of the sample did not believe that period products are affordable and that 51% reported that they struggled to obtain period products. Furthermore, 55% indicated that they had to borrow or change their current brand of the period product, and 51% revealed that they had to improvise or use alternative products such as toilet paper, napkins, and paper towels. The vast majority of the women also reported that their workplace and schools did not provide them with sanitary products and 99% believe that they should provide them with these products</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Considering these findings, it can be concluded that period poverty exists in Trinidad and Tobago, and recommendations include enacting proper legislation and policies to eliminate or reduce this problem.</p> Nadira Rambocas Yasphal Kissoon Jade Marie Kennedy Kabirah Mohammed Danae Khan M. Shastri Motilal Anu Bissessar Copyright (c) 2023 Nadira Rambocas, Yasphal Kissoon, Jade Marie Kennedy , Kabirah Mohammed, Danae Khan, M. Shastri Motilal, Anu Bissessar 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 10 1 25 30 10.36472/msd.v10i1.861 Evaluation of the Anxiety Status of the Individuals in the COVID-19 Testing Process <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has been stressful for individuals and societies. This study aimed to assess the individuals' anxiety status in the COVID-19 testing process.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This research is a descriptive study. The study was conducted within the COVID-19 testing process. Questionnaire form and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used as data collection tools through a face-to-face interviewwith a specialist psychiatric nurse before the COVID-19 testing.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In total, 296 individuals participated in the study. Among the participants and the people/family members they live with, the rate of individuals with chronic diseases were 18.9% and 24.3%, respectively. Of the participants, 22.3% had a family member with a positive COVID-19 test. The mean State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score of the participants in the study was 46.58±10.71 (40-59 points: moderate anxiety). Anxiety score average is statistically significantly higher in women, those with a chronic disease, those with a family member with a chronic disease, those with a family member with a positive COVID-19 test, and those whose spouse has a positive COVID-19 test (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is essential to raise awareness among healthcare professionals about common psychological complaints such as anxiety during pandemics, and to provide biopsychosocial monitoring to individuals by teams including family physicians and psychiatric nurses with a holistic health approach.</p> Sibel Dogan Fatima Ozdemir Sigva Ali Timucin Atayoglu Copyright (c) 2023 Sibel Dogan, Fatima Ozdemir Sigva, Ali Timucin Atayoglu 2023-01-26 2023-01-26 10 1 31 34 10.36472/msd.v10i1.862 Smartphone Addiction and Sleep Quality in Adolescents <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 0cm 0cm 8.0pt 0cm;"><strong>Objective:</strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">&nbsp;To determine the frequency of smartphone addiction and poor sleep in high school adolescents and to evaluate the relationship between phone addiction and sleep, together with demographic characteristics.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 0cm 0cm 8.0pt 0cm;"><strong>Methods<span style="color: #0e101a;">:</span></strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">&nbsp;A face-to-face survey was applied to 730 high school students in the Kahta district of Adıyaman, Turkey, between November 2021 and January 2022. The Smartphone Addiction Inventory-Short Form (SPAI-SF) was used to assess smartphone addiction, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 0cm 0cm 8.0pt 0cm;"><strong>Results<span style="color: #0e101a;">:</span></strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">&nbsp;The rate of smartphone addiction in adolescents was 41%, and poor sleep quality was 61%. When smartphone addiction increases, sleep quality decreases, and when sleep quality decreases smartphone addiction increases. Smartphone addiction and poor sleep quality were higher in girls compared to boys. As the parents’ education level and family income increase, the level of addiction increases, but sleep quality remain the same. We found that as age increases, the risk of smartphone addiction and the risk of deterioration in sleep quality increase.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 0cm 0cm 8.0pt 0cm;"><strong>Conclusion<span style="color: #0e101a;">:</span></strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">&nbsp;Smartphone addiction and poor sleep quality trigger each other in a vicious circle. The COVID-19 pandemic may have made smartphone addiction the most common addiction in the world. This addiction can increase the risk of substance addiction by impairing the quality of sleep in adolescents and lead to many physical, social, and mental problems. A multidisciplinary approach is vital for solving the problem.</span></p> Mehmet Emin Parlak Erdoğan Öz Mehmet Yavuz Özbey Yaşar Kapıcı Copyright (c) 2023 Mehmet Emin Parlak, Erdoğan Öz, Mehmet Yavuz Özbey, Yaşar Kapıcı 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 10 1 35 40 10.36472/msd.v10i1.864