Medical Science and Discovery <p><span style="font-family: Arial; font-size: small;"><strong>Medical Science and Discovery</strong> (ISSN: 2148-6832) is an international open access, peer-reviewed scientific research journal that provides rapid evaluation of articles in all disciplines of Medical Sciences.&nbsp;</span></p> Lycia Press London UK en-US Medical Science and Discovery 2148-6832 <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> The Role of Educational Interventions in Improving the Quality of Life of Cancer Patients: Review the Literature <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Being diagnosed with cancer can be very distressing for patients and may have an impact on the emotional and physical aspects of their lives, both at the time of diagnosis and throughout their treatment. Studies have shown that reduced quality of life has a detrimental effect on disease progression and is related to feelings of hopelessness and helplessness. Educational interventions, for example, self-care education or educating the 'caregiver's family were related to an improved quality of life after cancer treatment. The objective of this article is to review the clinical research articles focused on implementing educational interventions as a means to improve the ""Quality of Life"" [QoL] of cancer patients. </p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> The data in this study were collected from Scopus, Med line, Science Direct and Hinari databases. An in-depth search and advanced search of keywords ``Quality of life"", "Cancer Patients'', "education ", “Oncology Patients'', “Patients with Cancer“, “Quality of life”, “Intervention” was executed based on Inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 291 articles were identified. The final 13 articles were included in the review.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All analyzed studies have included some educational component in their intervention plan, during or after the cancer treatment. Patient education included different aspects like nutrition counseling, diet plan, and prevention of side effects related to cancer treatment in patients by patient self-care and education. Muscular progressive relaxation techniques were used to counteract nausea and emesis. Music was used to distract the patients throughout the whole chemotherapy treatment as well as before and after. One of the main elements of the self-care education was training about nutrition. Educational techniques such as instructing to perform abdominal massage, abdominal exercises to manage emesis and constipation associated with treatment, educational interventions also included daily text-messeges and web based education. Out of 13 studies analyzed, 10 showed a positive outcome.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We can conclude that educational interventions may be useful in maintaining and improving cancer patients` quality of life.</p> Mariami Abuladze Khatuna Saganelidze Prasanna Lakshmi Vidiyala Edward L Amdur Mostafa Yassin Tamar Esakia Copyright (c) 2022 Mariami Abuladze, Khatuna Saganelidze, Prasanna Lakshmi Vidiyala, Edward L Amdur, Mostafa Yassin, Tamar Esakia 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 9 9 488 494 10.36472/msd.v9i9.807 Uterosacral Ligament Dissection during McCall Culdoplasty to Prevent Ureteral Kinking, and Round Ligament Fixation to Support Vaginal Vault: A New Surgical Technique <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aims to describe a new surgical technique to prevent ureteral kinking via dissection uterosacral ligament from parietal peritoneum before McCall culdoplasty suture placement, and vaginal cuff fixation to round ligament to prevent apical vaginal vault prolapse after vaginal hysterectomy. </p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> At the initial step of vaginal hysterectomy, a circumferential incision was done on vaginal tissue, which covers the uterine cervix. Then posterior cul-de-sac was entered. Bilateral uterosacral ligament was identified, separately clamped, cut and sutured. Classical vaginal hysterectomy was completed up to the round ligament, which was separately grasped, cut and sutured. After the vaginal hysterectomy, the uterosacral ligament dissected from cardinal ligament and parietal peritoneum to prevent ureteral kinking during McCall Culdoplasty suture placement. Two internal McCall sutures with non-absorbable sutures and one external suture with absorbable sutures were place on the uterosacral ligament. Then bilateral apical lateral vaginal walls were fixated to ipsilateral round ligament to further support to vaginal vault.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> I have applied the new technique to my patients with pelvic organ prolapse for about one year. Ureteral kinking has not occurred in any patient. Early complications such as hemorrhage, bladder and ureter injury did not observed. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Ureteral kinking is a challenging problem for gynecologists during suture placement on the uterosacral ligament. Dissection of the uterosacral ligament from the cardinal ligament and parietal peritoneum yielded the surgeon to safe suture passage during McCall Culdoplasty suture placement and eliminated the requirement of cystoscopy evaluation to check ureteral competency.</p> Metin Kaba Copyright (c) 2022 Metin Kaba 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 9 9 485 487 10.36472/msd.v9i9.810 Alcohol use in Macau Secondary School Students and relating family factors <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To understand the current status of alcohol use in Macau secondary students and to explore the relationship between alcohol use behaviour in the students and various family factors. At the same time, the study also aimed to analyze the predictive power of various family factors on alcohol use, to provide a reference for the formulation of strategies for prevention and control of alcohol use in Macau adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> The study was a cross-sectional study with data collection using a self-constructed questionnaire. The study samples were students in formal or vocational education in Macau in the school year 2020/2021, with randomization using randomized multistage stratified cluster sampling. A total of 939 valid samples were collected for data analysis. The distributions of the background variables and the behavior of alcohol use were analyzed using descriptive analysis, while Chi-square test (Chi-square), one-way analysis of variance (One-Way ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression analysis were used for inferential statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is an increased risk of current alcohol use in the students whose siblings also have a drinking habit, who have helped family members buy alcohol, and whose parents are more positive about drinking and who think their parents do not care about them. Intervention measures should be formulated targeting these factors.</p> Teng Fai Ng Lin Ian Lio Copyright (c) 2022 Teng Fai Ng, Lin Ian Lio 2022-09-21 2022-09-21 9 9 523 531 10.36472/msd.v9i9.811 Plasma lipids, lipid peroxides and antioxidant system in osteoarthritic patients underwent spa therapy <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The molecular processes underlying degenerative cartilage disease ''osteoarthritis, OA'' are not fully known.. Although oxidative stress causes cell damage in various tissues, there is not enough evidence for the involvement of oxidative stress in degenerative joint diseases. On the other hand, various spa therapies such as balneotherapy, mud, mineral water, and sulfur bath have long been used for treating osteoarthritis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of spa therapy with balneotherapy on oxidant/antioxidant status and lipid levels.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 28 osteoarthritis patients who had spa therapy at Bursa Military Hospital, Turkey. Osteoarthritis patients between 45-70 years who had no contraindications to spa therapy were eligible for inclusion in the study. Spa therapy included balneotherapy with acratothermal water, physical therapy modalities, and mild exercise for 15 days. Blood samples were obtained before and after the treatment cycle to determine the patients' possible changes in oxidant/antioxidant status and lipid profiles. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total thiol (T-SH) levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and plasma lipids were measured.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We found a statistically nonsignificant decrease in MDA levels and a significant increase in GPx activity. Whereas plasma lipids, T-SH levels, TAC, and SOD activity remained unchanged.</p> <p>Conclusion: We may suggest that different mechanisms may play a role in the beneficial effects of spa therapy with balneotherapy in OA besides stimulation of GPx activity.</p> N. Haluk Aksoy Zeynep Caliskan Gul Ozdemirler Copyright (c) 2022 N. Haluk Aksoy, Zeynep Caliskan, Gul Ozdemirler 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 9 9 495 500 10.36472/msd.v9i9.787 Factors affecting urticaria control in patients with chronic urticaria <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Urticaria is a condition characterized by the development of blisters (hives), angioedema, or both. Acute urticaria is the appearance of rashes lasting 6 weeks or less, angioedema, or both. It is recommended to use the urticaria control test to evaluate disease control in patients with CSU. This study aimed to evaluate the factors affecting urticaria control in patients followed up with the diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> Urticaria control results of children diagnosed with chronic urticaria were evaluated retrospectively and factors that could affect urticaria control were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Relationships between the urticaria control test and age, gender, onset time of the complaint, family history of atopy, and laboratory values such as anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and c4 were examined.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although chronic urticaria has a mild course in children, parameters such as gender, age, and ANA positivity may affect the control of the disease.</p> Ozge Kangalli Boyacioglu Suna Asilsoy Gizem Atakul Ozge Atay Serdar Al Nevin Uzuner Copyright (c) 2022 Ozge Kangalli Boyacioglu, Suna Asilsoy, Gizem Atakul, Ozge Atay, Serdar Al, Nevin Uzuner 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 9 9 501 504 10.36472/msd.v9i9.794 The effects of whitening mouthrinses on the color stability of CAD/CAM resin matrix ceramics <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to evaluate the color change of CAD/CAM resin matrix ceramic, which was exposed to three different whitening mouth rinses and artificial saliva for 12 and 180 hours.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> A total of 60 samples were produced from prefabricated CAD/CAM resin matrix ceramic blocks for experimental study. The samples were randomly divided into four subgroups according to the whitening mouthrinses: Listerine Advanced White, Colgate Optic White, Oral B 3D White Luxe, and artificial saliva. Spectrophotometric measurements were made from each sample at 3 different times, before (initial) exposure to mouthrinses, 12 hours and 180 hours after exposure (∆E001, ∆E002 and ∆E003). While using the generalized linear models method for the comparison of ∆E00, ∆L, ∆a, and ∆b color changes according to the mouthrinse and exposure time; multiple comparisons were made with the Tukey HSD Test. The significance level was taken as p&lt;0.050.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the two-way analysis of variance showed that the used mouthrinse and the exposure time had a statistically significant effect on the ∆E00 values representing the color change (p&lt;0.001), while the interaction between the mouthrinse and the time of use did not play an important role (p=0.165).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> After exposure time of 180 hours, all whitening mouthrinses induce color change of resin matrix ceramics above clinically noticeable level.</p> Murat Eskitaşçıoğlu Copyright (c) 2022 Murat Eskitaşçıoğlu 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 9 9 505 511 10.36472/msd.v9i9.806 Prognostic Value of Novel Hematologic Biomarkers in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Pulmonary vascular remodeling and inflammation play a major role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Novel hematologic biomarkers have recently been recognized as a risk predictor for cardiovascular, oncologic, and inflammatory diseases. We aimed to investigate the association of hematologic biomarkers with mortality in PAH patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Fourty-five patients diagnosed with PAH and 45 healthy volunteers were evaluated retrospectively. Concurrent data included clinical, echocardiographic, hemodynamic and hematologic variables. The study population was divided into subgroups based on admission neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), neutrophil to monocyte ratio (NMR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) values.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The median NMR and NLR levels were lower in healthy subjects than in PAH patients (7.7 (7-8.8) vs 9.2 (6.5-11.6); p= 0.03 and 1.9 (1.4-2.9) vs 2.6 (1.9-3.3); p= 0.04) respectively). The estimated mean survival duration was longer in patients with low NMR levels (93 (95% CI, 86-100) vs. 67 (95% CI, 45-88) months (p=0.006) respectively). NMR independently predicted poor outcome and improved the power of the other prognostic markers (OR 1.4 (95% CI, 1-1.8) p= 0.04); (AUC= 0.91; p&lt; 0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>NMR levels alone or combined with other prognostic factors may predict mortality in patients with PAH.</p> Barış Şensoy Nur Özer Şensoy Muhammed Süleymanoğlu Omaç Tüfekçioğlu Copyright (c) 2022 Barış Şensoy, Nur Özer Şensoy, Muhammed Süleymanoğlu, Omaç Tüfekçioğlu 2022-09-18 2022-09-18 9 9 512 522 10.36472/msd.v9i9.797 Analysis of factors predicting the efficacy of Imatinib in patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A retrospective analysis <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Imatinib is a commonly used first generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The efficacy has been reported as very high even in recent studies.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong> A retrospective analysis was made of newly diagnosed CML patients treated with Imatinib as a first-line agent from January 2010 to January 2020. The patients were classified as those who obtained an adequate response and those for whom treatment was discontinued due to inadequate efficacy. The two groups were compared to analyze factors predicting the efficacy of the agent.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Evaluation was made of a total of 47 CML patients, comprising 20 females (42.6%) and 27 males (57.4%) with a median age of 55 years. Imatinib was discontinued in 19 patients because of inadequate response, and 28 patients were still continuing the treatment at the end of median 33.3 months follow-up duration. At the end of follow-up, there were 44 survivors (93.6%), and 3 non-survivors (6.4%). Median Bcr-Abl (IS, %) at the time of diagnosis in patients with response was higher than patients in discontinued group (67.6 [0.0-291.4] vs 41.9 [0.0-208.5], p=0.022). All other disease and demographic characteristics were similar in both groups (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Almost 10 years of follow-up demonstrated that there is still an unmet need to determine factors predicting the response to Imatinib in CML patients. Larger population-based studies are required to specify patients with high risk at the time of diagnosis to monitor closely.</p> Mesut Tığlıoğlu Murat Albayrak Abdulkerim Yıldız Pınar Tığlıoğlu Buğra Sağlam Fatma Yılmaz Merih Reis Aras Ümit Yavuz Malkan Hacer Berna Afacan Öztürk Copyright (c) 2022 Mesut Tığlıoğlu, Murat Albayrak, Abdulkerim Yıldız, Pınar Tığlıoğlu, Buğra Sağlam, Fatma Yılmaz, Merih Reis Aras, Ümit Yavuz Malkan, Hacer Berna Afacan Öztürk 2022-09-23 2022-09-23 9 9 532 536 10.36472/msd.v9i9.802 The importance of biomarkers in determining the prognosis of patients requiring intensive care hospitalization due to COVID-19 infection <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aims to investigate the effect of biomarkers such as CRP, ferritin, troponin, lymphopenia, and D-dimer in predicting disease severity and clinical outcome. Identifying an effective and predictive biomarker will help to evaluate patients' risk and improve overall clinical management of patients with COVID-19</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> In this retrospective cohort study, 1458 patients who were taken to intensive care follow-up due to COVID-19 across the province of Bursa were evaluated. Age, gender, and laboratory data such as ferritin, D-dimer, White Blood Cell (WBC), C-reactive protein, troponin values, chronic diseases, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and mortality were recorded. The relation of these variables with mortality was analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age and length of stay in the intensive care unit (p=379, p=0.094). There was a statistically significant difference between the groups for ferritin, CRP, D-dimer, troponin, and WBC variables (p&lt;0.001). In the ROC analysis, it was seen that the sensitivity value for ferritin was 86.08%, the specificity value was 85.23%, and the AUC: 0.902 had a high level of diagnostic value.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> An increase in acute phase reactants was associated with mortality in patients followed up for COVID-19. This may be related to the increased cytokine response triggered by the disease.</p> Salih Metin Suna Eraybar Hüseyin Aygün Canan Demir Copyright (c) 2022 Salih Metin, Suna Eraybar, Hüseyin Aygün, Canan Demir 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 9 9 537 547 10.36472/msd.v9i9.817 Evaluation of factors affecting smoking cessation in people treated with Varenicline <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Aim of the study is to evaluate factors affecting treatment success among individuals receiving varenicline therapy for smoking cessation.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This research was carried out at Istanbul Medeniyet University Göztepe Training and Research Hospital between January 2018 and January 2019. A total of 209 patients in the smoking cessation outpatient clinic who were treated with varenicline Varenicline were constituted into the study group. The Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Level Test (FTND) was used to determine individuals' nicotine addiction levels, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate anxiety and depression levels.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were 90 (43.1%) women and 119 (56.9%) men in the study group and mean age was 41.34 ± 10.93 (21-64) years. Overall, 63.2% (n=132) of varenicline recipients quit smoking. The frequency of quitting smoking due to physician advice was higher in those who quit than those who did not (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression revealed that the independent factors associated with the lower likelihood of smoking cessation were higher number of cigarettes per day (p=0.008), higher HADS-Total score (p&lt;0.001), post-treatment nervousness (p=0.046), and post-treatment depressive mood (p=0.007), whereas being able to remain smoke-free for longer periods in previous quitting attempts was associated with higher likelihood of success (p=0.005).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The success of smoking cessation with varenicline therapy is lower in the presence of the following factors: having high risk for anxiety and depression, smoking a greater number of cigarettes per day, shorter periods of remaining smoke-free in previous quitting attempts, and experiencing nervousness during withdrawal. Receiving physician advice to quit also appears to increase the chance of quitting smoking.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Smoking; Smoking Cessation; Smoking Cessation Agents; Varenicline; Anxiety; Depression</p> Neslişah Gürel Köksal Zuhal Aydan Sağlam Copyright (c) 2022 Neslişah Gürel Köksal, Zuhal Aydan Sağlam 2022-09-28 2022-09-28 9 9 548 554 10.36472/msd.v9i9.805